A gender-based examination of past-year recreational gamblers.
Compared to casino-only gamblers, individuals who gambled in gamblint locations reported less drug use, poorer subjective health, earlier age of gambling onset, greater frequency of gambling, and larger wins and losses. Compared to casino-only or non-casino-only gambling, gambling in both locations was associated pc gambling games more frequent and heavier gambling.
Findings suggest aspects of recreational gambling, such as gambling venue, may have important public health implications and should be considered in guidelines for responsible gambling. Recreational gambling has been defined as gambling that does not meet the threshold for problem or pathological gambling Gerstein gxmbling al.
Terms such as recreational, low-risk, and responsible gambling often lack clear definitions across studies Blaszczynski et al. However, research suggests gambling behavior exists along a continuum, encompassing a wide range of gambling behavior from pathological levels of gambling to no gambling at all Shaffer ; Currie et al.
Given the number of recreational gamblers in the general population, understanding the impact of recreational gambling on health and well-being becomes important, particularly as gambling research and policy efforts begin to focus on public health considerations such as economic and legal issues technology used in gambling well as responsible gambling efforts Korn and Shaffer, ; Shaffer and Korn, ; Toce-Gerstein et al.
Health correlates of recreational gambling have been examined with respect to age and gender Gamblkng et al. Casino gambling, as compared to prevalent forms of non-casino gambling e. Certain forms of gambling e. For example, individuals living in close proximity to US or Canadian casinos have been reported to have high rates of gambling problems Welte et al.
Room and colleagues observed increased rates of gambling problems following the opening of a nearby casino, and Toneatto and colleagues reported increased frequency of casino gambling in treatment-seeking substance abusers following the opening of a nearby casino, as well as greater problem gambling severity amongst individuals engaging in weekly casino gambling. Other studies link casino gambling across age groups with gambling problems Bazargan et al.
In a recently published longitudinal study with adolescents, preferred recreztional of gambling was found to change over time, shifting from non-regulated games e. Additionally, engagement in more extensive card-based and other non-regulated forms of gambling was associated with drug and alcohol use and gambling problems Goudriaan et al. International studies of electronic gaming machines EGMs demonstrate a relationship between EGMs and problematic gambling, and suggest that the relationship may be stronger for EGM gambling in non-casino, as compared to casino, locations Dowling et al.
Clarke and colleagues further investigated this and found that EGM gambling that took place in pubs, as compared to EGM gambling in casinos, was more strongly associated with rerceational gambling problems. These studies indicate that the type of gambling taking place in different venues i. Data suggest casino gambling is associated with second-hand smoke exposure and high rates of tobacco smoking Shaffer et al. Some have proposed that casino gambling may also be associated with cardiac arrests Jason et al.
Other studies do not support the link between casino gambling and gambling problems; a prevalence estimate for pathological gambling of 0. Although recreational gambling prevalence estimates appeared to increase, those of pathological gambling in Quebec did not increase from to despite the growth of casino gambling during that time Ladouceur et al.
Thus, although studies suggest that proximity to and availability of casino and non-casino gambling may influence recreational and problem gambling behaviors, at present this relationship is not well understood and requires additional research. Studies to date have not systematically investigated recreational gambling categorized by gambling venue. As in prior studies from our group Desai et al. Given existing data, we hypothesized that casino-only recreational gambling as compared to non-casino-only recreational gambling would be more strongly associated with adverse health measures e.
We also hypothesized that recreational gambling in both casino and non-casino locations, as compared to casino-only or non-casino-only venues, would be more strongly associated with adverse health measures e. Only data from the RDD sample were included in the analyses as: Telephone numbers purchased from Survey Sampling, Inc.
The telephone survey sample was designed and statistically weighted to ensure representation of the U. Comparisons of the final sample found it to recreattional representative of the U. Potential differences between respondents and non-respondents were unable to be examined. Past-year alcohol use was defined as alcohol use at least once a month for at least 12 gamblimg over the past year. Drug abuse and drug dependence were not included as separate variables but rather collapsed as one variable as done previously Desai et al.
Mental health treatment was based on seeking treatment for problems with emotions, nerves, or mental health with a clinic, doctor, or counselor in the past 12 months. The GIBS did not contain objective measures of general health. As in prior studies Desai et al, ; Lynch et al. Machine gambling was defined as any participation in internet, machine, slot machine, video lottery, video poker, electronic game, gwmbling video machine gambling.
Weighting factors used were those described previously for analysis of the RDD sample Gerstein et al. The weighting procedure involved steps corresponding to: Analyses proceeded in several steps. Gamblinf, sociodemographic characteristics e. For the stepwise procedure, all variables were considered for inclusion in each model for each outcome.
Estimates presented were adjusted only for those variables retained in the final model for each particular outcome. Variables not retained were rejected by the stepwise procedure as not being sufficiently related to the outcome to warrant inclusion in the final model. Significant differences were observed in the demographic characteristics of past-year casino-only, non-casino-only, and both casino and non-casino gamblers Table 1. Compared with casino-only gamblers, individuals who engaged in both casino and non-casino gambling differed on measures of sex and employment, with larger proportions being male and employed full-time.
Compared to non-casino-only gamblers, individuals who engaged in both casino and non-casino gambling differed on measures of education, employment and income, being more likely to report higher education, more employment, and greater incomes. Casino-only gamblers and non-casino-only gamblers differed with respect to years of education, with the former group characterized by more years of education.
Significant health-related differences were observed between past-year casino-only, non-casino-only, and both casino and non-casino gamblers Table 2. Individuals who gambled in both casinos and non-casinos, recreatoinal to casino-only gamblers, were less likely to report using drugs in the past year and less likely to report good to excellent subjective general health.
No significant differences were observed between casino-only and non-casino-only gamblers. Comparisons for differences in measures gwmbling gambling attitudes and behaviors e. Individuals who participated in both casino and non-casino gambling, compared to casino-only gamblers, were more likely to report gambling to be around people, gambling for excitement, and gambling to win money, as well as gambling at an earlier age. These individuals also reported more frequent gambling, larger wins, larger losses, and greater engagement in all types of gambling in the past year, compared to casino-only gamblers.
Individuals who participated in both casino and non-casino gambling, compared to non-casino-only gamblers, were more likely to report gambling for social activity, for personal services, to be around people, and for excitement. These individuals also were more likely to report gambling with someone else, gambling more frequently, larger wins and losses, and engagement in both strategic and machine gambling, compared to non-casino-only gamblers.
Non-casino-only gamblers, compared to casino-only gamblers, were more likely to report gambling to win money, gambling at sign up bonus navy reserve earlier age, and engaging in strategic gambling. Significant differences were observed in health and well-being characteristics as well as gambling attitudes and behaviors among past-year recreational gamblers who participated in casino-only gambling, non-casino-only gambling, or both.
These findings partially support our initial hypotheses, and the implications of these findings are discussed below. It is possible that environmental factors may contribute to the observed relationship between multiple gambling venues and alcohol consumption. These factors may recdeational the greater availability of alcoholic beverages at gambling locations leading to recreatiomal alcohol consumption among gamblers in those establishments. Drinking and gambling may also have an interactive influence, wherein individuals may gamble more when under the influence of alcohol Kyngdon and Dickerson, how does online gambling work Richards et al.
Other factors may also lead to this association e. At present, no causal inferences can be made, and interpretations of the observed associations should be approached cautiously. One unexpected finding was that of lower rates of past-year drug use in individuals who engaged in both casino and non-casino gambling.
A possible explanation for this may be that drug use might limit the repertoire of gambling behaviors in which recreational gamblers engage, possibly through motivational, organizational, or financial mechanisms.
For example, it may be that in drug users greater saliency is given to using money to purchase drugs than to gamble, or perhaps drug use might recrwational with the desire or capacity to travel to gambling venues. Given limitations in interpreting these data e. Casino-only gamblers reported better subjective health compared to individuals who engaged in both casino and non-casino gambling. One explanation for this finding may recreayional that certain aspects about casino gambling may facilitate more social interaction e.
More detailed research and an improved understanding of both positive and negative health factors associated with different gambling venues as well as with the specific types of gambling activities may help to elucidate further the nature of some of these observed relationships. The findings suggest that on measures of gambling attitudes and behaviors, people who engaged in both casino and non-casino gambling were significantly different from casino-only or non-casino-only gamblers.
Specifically, individuals who gambled in both locations endorsed more reasons for gambling e. They also reported greater frequency of gambling, greater maximal wins and losses, and greater engagement in strategic and machine forms of gambling than casino-only or non-casino-only gamblers. While casino-only and non-casino-only gamblers demonstrated gajbling significant differences when compared to each other on both reason to gamble variables e.
These data suggest that engagement in multiple gambling activities in different venues may be associated with more reasons for gambling, greater frequencies of gambling, greater monetary wins and losses, and greater engagement in a variety of strategic and machine gambling. The findings also suggest that the propensity towards a wider range of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in recreational gamblers who engage in both rscreational and non-casino forms of gambling may put these individuals at-risk for more negative health and behavior consequences.
Engagement in a wider variety of recreational gambling may also put individuals at risk for later gambling problems Goudriaan et al. Additional studies, particularly longitudinal, are important in testing this gabmling. If upheld, it would suggest that identifying individuals who report gambling in multiple venues, as a sub-population of recreational gamblers, may be important in responsible gambling education efforts, as well as in developing specialized prevention and treatment programs.
The current study uses data from a large, national survey to systematically examine characteristics of three groups of gambling industy recreational gamblers casino-only, non-casino-only, and both casino and non-casino gamblers. The findings add to the literature by demonstrating both positive and negative measures of health and well-being are associated with past-year recreational gambling exclusive of problem and pathological gambling.
The results support those of previous research with recreational or subthreshold or low-risk gamblers indicating the association of negative health- and well-being-related measures with gambling is not limited to problem or pathological levels. The findings demonstrate significant differences in mental health and gambling-related attitudes and behaviors among recreational gamblers grouped by types of gambling casino and recreatiomal and contribute to the literature by suggesting that preferred types of recreational gambling, defined by gambling venue, may be an important aspect to consider as research and public policy efforts encompass recreational and responsible gambling.
Prevention and recreztional efforts to date have focused on groups of individuals who engage in problem and 2 up 2 down roulette system levels of gambling, as these individuals tend to experience greater problems and distress related to gambling. We are not suggesting that all sub-syndromal levels of gambling are risky or have negative effects; however, if research continues to demonstrate there are significant health- and gambling-related consequences that may affect individuals who gamble at non-problematic or non-pathological levels, then identifying groups of recreational or low-risk gamblers and further investigating their characteristics may be an important first step recreatlonal understanding the full impact of gambling at recreational levels.
Taken together, findings from the present study and others examining non-problematic and non-pathological forms of gambling recreational the need to further investigate forms of recreational, low-risk, or responsible gambling to better understand their potential impact. Limitations of the present study include the: The cut-off value 3 or more past-year or lifetime diagnostic criteria used to exclude roulette rng system from the category of recreational gamblers in the present study is less stringent than that currently used in DSM-IV-TR to define pathological gambling five or more criteria Potenza et al.
General limitations of surveys also apply to the present study. Strengths of the study include the use of a national survey employing a well-designed RDD format and roulette cheat sheet weighting measures. Given that two-thirds of the general adult population engages in past-year recreational or non-problematic forms of gambling, the findings of studies that include investigations of subsyndromal gambling have implications for a large group of people.
Information gained from investigations of gambling along a spectrum may help to better understand the range of effects that even non-problematic forms of gambling have on individuals. These findings may help to guide both clinical efforts such as identification of recreational gambling in specific populations who may be more at-risk for gambling-related problems e. The findings also suggest that more thorough screenings at general health and other mental health appointments, akin to the current practice of asking individuals if they presently smoke and how often, gambling recreational performed with respect to assessing gambling behaviors.
Additionally, public policy efforts related to responsible gambling specifically target populations of individuals who gamble recreationally, and assumedly without gambling-related or health-related difficulties. Having a better understanding of the potential effects of gambling within these groups of gamblers may better inform policy makers who are developing and implementing responsible gambling regulations. Within these contexts, it will agmbling important to better understand the manner in gamgling specific forms or patterns of recreational gambling tecreational.Higher ORs were seen with certain comorbid disorders, particularly any alcohol-related disorder, for which recreational gamblers showed a. Although recreational gambling is prevalent and co-occurs with substance abuse/dependence, few studies have investigated the relationship. Unlike younger recreational gamblers who show high rates of alcohol use and abuse, depression, bankruptcy and incarceration, there appears.